Not absolutely all product that has been taped had been coded. As our focus had been on scripted development, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and activities, and paid development, also all types of commercials along with other promotions ( e.g., teasers for system programs). Although music videos had been taped, these people were coded and analyzed individually because of the unique faculties and are also perhaps not reported right here. The analyses offered in this paper, nevertheless, do through the video that is nonmusic from cable music activity stations including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and truth programs. In addition, demonstrates that had been incomplete simply because they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. weren’t coded. Finally, episode repeats were eradicated through the sample.
The sample that is final the 2001 2002 period contained 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the last test when it comes to 2002 2003 period included 1,439 unique system episodes. The test when it comes to 2nd content analysis ended up being significantly larger than the initial year’s test even as we produced concerted work in 12 months 2 to ensure we had three episodes of every nonsyndicated show. Despite strict adherence into the sampling plan, extra taping ended up being needed whenever, for instance, brand new programs joined the autumn lineup following the beginning of the year to replace for cancelled programs or if the time and time slot for a set ended up being changed.
The codebook for the bigger research had been based significantly from the factors produced by Kunkel and peers (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted when it comes to Kaiser Family Foundation. We created extra things, including those on same intercourse intimate behavior and sexual talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals. In comparison to Kunkel and peers, who utilized the scene while the unit that is primary of, our content analyses involved coding for sexual content in 2 moment periods of program time. Because scenes differ quite a bit in total and, hence, try not to offer a consistent product of measure in making evaluations across programs, we used a coding that is standard centered on time. Coding news development in designated time intervals has been utilized usually by other scientists conducting content analyses across different program genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers Flanagan, Sommers Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).
For purposes for this content analysis, sex ended up being thought as any depiction of sexual intercourse, intimately suggestive behavior, or any speak about sex or activity that is sexual. To be conservative and prevent overcoding content that is sexual messages about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual messages associated with love free cam babes and relationships, that have been perhaps maybe perhaps not coded. As an example, a declaration such as вЂњi enjoy my boyfriendвЂќ wouldn’t be coded whereas a declaration such as вЂњI made like to my boyfriendвЂќ will be coded.
Every 2 moment period that were coded as containing one or more types of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, as well as other sexual behavior 2 has also been evaluated when it comes to existence of exact same sex intimate behavior. With this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted into the period happened between a couple associated with the same intercourse.
Each 2 minute period that have been coded as containing a minumum of one example of talk through the intimate talk categories utilized in the primary coding task ( ag e.g., commentary about own/others’ intimate actions or interests, explore sexual activity which includes currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) ended up being additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals. With this product, coders once once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the talk that is sexual the intimate passions or concerns of nonheterosexual individuals. Most frequently, such reviews related to gays and lesbians, although periodically these people were connected with bisexuals.